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Authors born between 1000 and 500 BCE

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Contents

Introduction

Humanitarianism

Marriage and Family

Achieving Justice

Treatment of Homicides

Compensation for Injuries

Protection of Property

Protection of Women

Loans and Pledges

Sexual Relations

Slavery and Kidnapping

War

Sources

 

 

Introduction

 

Hebrew scribes probably began writing down the text of the Hebrew Bible in the Seventh Century BCE, making use of oral traditions that came from earlier periods. In it there are codes of conduct, ethical guidance, and laws that give us insight into the emergence of ideas of how society can be strengthened to improve the lives of all its members. Within the Bible, the primary sources for early information of this type are the Book of the Covenant in Exodus, Deuteronomy, and the Holiness Code in Leviticus. Exodus may date from the Seventh Century BCE, Deuteronomy from the Sixth Century BCE, and Leviticus from the Fourth Century BCE.

 

Here, extracts from these sources have been combined into related categories. As these sources are religious documents, nearly every command or admonition in the original text is combined with an explanation that this is what YHWH, the God of the Hebrews, commands and that obedience will certainly be beneficial to the individual or to the state. All of these religious justifications have been removed from the text below to reduce its length and to show more clearly the main thrust of guidance being given. There is also much material on cultic practices that has also been omitted.

 

The material offers much in the way of humanistic thought in its command to love oneís neighbor, not nurse hatred, not take vengeance, honor the aged, and be considerate to the deaf and blind. There is guidance for aiding the poor, the widow and orphan, and for compassionate treatment of those who have fallen on hard times. However, these considerations are restricted to tribal members. Nearby tribes are not treated this way: males are to be killed at will and women and children to be taken into slavery. Some effort is made to regulate sexual relations with slaves and the children they produce. Protection is given to the tribe's own people against kidnapping and slavery. 

       

 Marriage and the family are seen as the fundamental basis for society, and punishments for transgressions against the well-being of the family are severe. There is also an attempt to deal with wronged brides and bridegrooms. And there are harsh measures proposed for sexual relations outside of marriage. The importance of purity before marriage to women in this society is addressed by punishment for rape or seduction. 

 

In criminal matters there is guidance to not steal from, lie to, oppress, or cheat oneís neighbor, and there are procedures for setting up courts, obtaining proper testimony, avoiding bias, resolving disputes and carrying out punishments. In the treatment of murder and injury there are harsh penalties. There is also an attempt to prevent obligatory murder by a family in retaliation for an accidental killing of one of their members (blood vengeance). This is to be achieved by means of sanctuary cities. There is also an attempt to legislate compensation for injuries of different classes of people under various circumstances.

 

Protection of property takes into account land, goods, and animals. In one case, it is made clear that even in the case of personal enemies, restitution of a straying ox or ass must be made. Even someone who hates you must be helped if his ass has collapsed under a load. The agricultural nature of the society is indicated by the recognition of dangers caused by open wells or by burning off of fields. In general there is an absence of many of the laws of Hammurabi that relate to the more complex needs of a civilization operating a large empire. Thus, there is little about trading, property rights in marriage, divorce, and adoption, redress against faulty house or boat construction, damage to irrigation systems, or penalties for medical malpractice.

 

Each extract given below is identified by its source of origin (E: Exodus; D: Deuteronomy; L: Leviticus.)

  

   

Humanitarianism

   

1    You shall love your neighbor as a man like yourself . L19: 18

    

2    You shall not nurse hatred against your brother. L19:17

   

3    You shall not seek revenge, or cherish anger towards your kinsfolk. L19:18

   

4    You shall rise in the presence of gray hairs, give honor to the aged, L19,32

   

5    You shall not treat the deaf with contempt, nor put an obstruction in the way of the blind. L19: 14

   

6    You shall reprove your fellow-countryman frankly and so you will have no share in his guilt. L19:17

   

7    You shall not wrong an alien, or be hard upon him; . . .You shall not ill-treat any widow or fatherless child. E22: 21-24

    

8    You shall not keep back the wages of a man who is poor and needy, whether a fellow-countryman or an alien living in your country in one of your settlements. Pay him his wages on the same day before sunset, for he is poor and his heart is set on them: D24: 14-15

   

9    At the end of every third year you shall bring out all the tithe of your produce for that year and leave it in your settlements so that the Levites, who have no holding or patrimony among you, and the aliens, orphans, and widows in your settlements may come and eat their fill. D14: 28-9

   

10    For six years you may sow your land and gather its produce; but in the seventh year you shall let it lie fallow and leave it alone. It shall provide food for the poor of your people, and what they leave the wild animals may eat. You shall do likewise with your vineyard and your olive-grove. E23: 10-11

    

11    You shall count . . . seven times seven years, forty-nine years, and in the seventh month on the tenth day of the month, on the Day of Atonement, you shall send the ram's horn round. You shall send it through all your land to sound a blast, and so you shall hallow the fiftieth year and proclaim liberation in the land for all its inhabitants. You shall make this your year of jubilee. Every man of you shall return to his patrimony, every man to his family. L25:8-10

    

12    When one of you is reduced to poverty and sells part of his patrimony, his next-of-kin who has the duty of redemption shall come and redeem what his kinsman has sold. When a man has no such next-of-kin and himself becomes able to afford its redemption, he shall take into account the years since the sale and pay the purchaser the balance up to the jubilee. Then he may return to his patrimony. But if the man cannot afford to buy back the property, it shall remain in the hands of the purchaser till the year of jubilee. It shall then revert to the original owner, and he shall return to his patrimony. L25:25-28

    

13    When your brother is reduced to poverty and sells himself to you, you shall not use him to work for you as a slave. His status shall be that of a hired man or a stranger lodging with you; he shall work for you until the year of jubilee. He shall then leave your service, with his children, and go back to his family and to his ancestral property:  L25: 39-42

   

14    When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap right into the very edges of your field, neither shall you glean the loose ears of your crop; you shall not completely strip your vineyard nor glean the fallen grapes. You shall leave them for the poor and for the alien . . .L19:9-10

   

15    When you beat your olive-trees, do not strip them afterwards; what is left shall be for the alien, the orphan, and the widow. D24: 20

  

16    When you come across a bird's nest by the road, in a tree or on the ground, with fledglings or eggs in it and the mother-bird on the nest, do not take both mother and young. Let the mother-bird go free, and take only the young; D22: 6-7

  

17    When you go into another man's vineyard, you may eat as many grapes as you wish to satisfy your hunger, but you may not put any into your basket. D23: 24

  

18    When you go into another man's standing corn, you may pluck ears to rub in your hands, but you may not put a sickle to his standing corn. D23: 25

   

   

Marriage and Family

    

19    You shall revere, every man of you, his mother and his father. L19,3

  

20    When a man has two wives, one loved and the other unloved, if they both bear him sons, and the son of the unloved wife is the elder, then, when the day comes for him to divide his property among his sons, he shall not treat the son of the loved wife as his first-born in contempt of his true firstborn, the son of the unloved wife. He shall recognize the rights of his firstborn, the son of the unloved wife, and give him a double share of all that he possesses; for he was the first fruits of his manhood, and the right of the first-born is his. D21: 15-17

  

21    You shall not go about spreading slander among your fatherís kin, L19:16

 

22    When a man has a son who is disobedient and out of control, and will not obey his father or his mother, or pay attention when they punish him, then his father and mother shall take hold of him and bring him out to the elders of the town, at the town gate. They shall say to the elders of the town, "This son of ours is disobedient and out of control; he will not obey us, he is a wastrel and a drunkard." Then all the men of the town shall stone him to death, D21: 18-21

  

23    A man shall not take his father's wife: he shall not bring shame on his father. D22: 30

 

24    When any man reviles his father or his mother he shall be put to death L20:9. . .

  

25    Do not prostitute your daughter and so make her a whore, L19:29

  

26    When a man takes a wife and after having intercourse with her turns against her and brings trumped-up charges against her, giving her a bad name and saying, "I took this woman and slept with her and did not find proof of virginity in her", then the girl's father and mother shall take the proof of her virginity to the elders of the town, at the town gate. The girl's father shall say to the elders, "I gave my daughter in marriage to this man, and he has turned against her. He has trumped up a charge and said, 'I have not found proofs of virginity in your daughter.' Here are the proofs."

      They shall then spread the garment before the elders of the town. The elders shall take the man and punish him: they shall fine him a hundred pieces of silver because he has given a bad name to a virgin of Israel, and hand them to the girl's father. She shall be his wife: he is not free to divorce her all his life long.

       If, on the other hand, the accusation is true and no proof of the girl's virginity is found, then they shall bring her out to the door of her father's house and the men of her town shall stone her to death. She has committed an outrage in Israel by playing the prostitute in her father's house: D22: 13-21

   

27    When a man has married a wife, but she does not win his favour because he finds something shameful in her, and he writes her a note of divorce, gives it to her and dismisses her; and suppose after leaving his house she goes off to become the wife of another man, and this next husband turns against her and writes her a note of divorce which he gives her and dismisses her, or dies after making her his wifeó then in that case her first husband who dismissed her is not free to take her back to be his wife again after she has become for him unclean. D24: 1-4

   

28    If a man commits adultery with his neighbour's wife, both adulterer and adulteress shall be put to death. L20:10

 

29    The man who has intercourse with his father's wife has brought shame on his father. They shall both be put to death.L20:11

 

30    If a man has intercourse with his daughter-in-law, they shall both be put to death. L20:12

 

31    When a virgin is pledged in marriage to a man and another man comes upon her in the town and lies with her, you shall bring both of them out to the gate of that town and stone them to death; the girl because, although in the town, she did not cry for help, and the man because he dishonoured another man's wife:  D22- 23-24

    

32    If a man takes his sister, his father's daughter or his mother's daughter, and they see one another naked, it is a scandalous disgrace. They shall be cut off in the presence of their people. The man has had intercourse with his sister and he shall accept responsibility. L20:17

 

33    If a man lies with a woman during her monthly period and brings shame upon her, he has exposed her discharge and she has uncovered the source of her discharge; they shall both be cut off from their people. L20:18

 

34    You shall not have intercourse with your mother's sister or your father's sister: it is the exposure of a blood-relation. They shall accept responsibility. L20:19

   

35    A man who has intercourse with his uncle's wife has brought shame upon his uncle. They shall accept responsibility for their sin and shall be proscribed and put to death. L20:20

 

36    If a man takes his brother's wife, it is impurity. He has brought shame upon his brother; they shall be proscribed. L20:21

  

37    When brothers live together and one of them dies without leaving a son, his widow shall not marry outside the family. Her husband's brother shall have intercourse with her; he shall take her in marriage and do his duty by her as her husband's brother. The first son she bears shall perpetuate the dead brother's name so that it may not be blotted out from Israel. 

        But if the man is unwilling to take his brother's wife, she shall go to the elders at the town gate and say, "My husband's brother refuses to perpetuate his brother's name in Israel; he will not do his duty by me." At this the elders of the town shall summon him and reason with him. If he still stands his ground and says, "I will not take her", his brother's widow shall go up to him in the presence of the elders; she shall pull his sandal off his foot and spit in his face and declare: "Thus we requite the man who will not build up his brother's family." His family shall be known in Israel as the House of the Unsandalled Man.  D25: 5-10

  

   

Achieving Justice

  

38    You shall not cheat or deceive a fellow-countryman. L19: 11

  

39    [You shall not] take sides against your neighbor on a capital charge. L19:16

 

40    You shall not deprive the poor man of justice in his suit. Avoid all lies, and do not cause the death of the innocent and the guiltless; E23: 6-7

    

41    You shall not be led into wrongdoing by the majority, nor, when you give evidence in a lawsuit, shall you side with the majority to pervert justice; nor shall you favour the poor man in his suit. E23: 2-3

   

42    Fathers shall not be put to death for their children, nor children for their fathers; a man shall be put to death only for his own sin. D24: 16

   

43    When an alien settles with you in your land, you shall not oppress him. He shall be treated as native born among you, and you shall love him as a man like yourself,  L19: 33,34

 

44    You shall have one penalty for alien and native alike L24: 22.

    

45    You shall appoint for yourselves judges and officers, tribe by tribe, in every settlement . . .and they shall dispense true justice to the people. You shall not pervert the course of justice or show favour, nor shall you accept a bribe; for bribery makes the wise man blind and the just man give a crooked answer. Justice, and justice alone, you shall pursue D16: 18-20

  

46    When the issue in any lawsuit is beyond your competence, whether it be a case of blood against blood, plea against plea, or blow against blow, that is disputed in your courts, then . . . go to the levitical priests or to the judge then in office; seek their guidance, and they will pronounce the sentence. D17: 8-10

   

47    When two men go to law and present themselves for judgement, the judges shall try the case; they shall acquit the innocent and condemn the guilty. If the guilty man is sentenced to be flogged, the judge shall cause him to lie down and be beaten in his presence; the number of strokes shall correspond to the gravity of the offence. They may give him forty strokes, but not more; otherwise, if they go further and exceed this number, your fellow-countryman will have been publicly degraded D25: 1-3

  

48    A single witness may not give evidence against a man in the matter of any crime or sin which he commits: a charge must be established on the evidence of two or of three witnesses. D19: 15

   

49    When a malicious witness comes forward to give false evidence against a man, and the two disputants stand before YHWH, before the priests and the judges then in office, if, after careful examination by the judges, he be proved to be a false witness giving false evidence against his fellow, you shall treat him as he intended to treat his fellow, and thus rid yourselves of this wickedness. The rest of the people when they hear of it will be afraid: never again will anything as wicked as this be done among you. You shall show no mercy: life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. D19: 16-21

   

  

Treatment of Homicides

  

50    You shall not commit murder. E20: 13

    

51    But if a man has the presumption to kill another by treachery, you shall take him . . . to be put to death. E21:14

 

52    Whoever strikes his father or mother shall be put to death. E21: 15

   

53    . . . you shall set apart three cities in the land [you conquer]. . . These shall be places in which homicides may take sanctuary. This is the kind of homicide who may take sanctuary there and save his life: the man who strikes another without intent and with no previous enmity between them; for instance, the man who goes into a wood with his mate to fell trees, and, when cutting a tree, he relaxes his grip on the axe, the head glances off the tree, hits the other man and kills him. The homicide may take sanctuary in any one of these cities, and his life shall be safe. Otherwise, when the dead man's next-of-kin who had the duty of vengeance pursued him in the heat of passion, he might overtake him if the distance were great, and take his life, although the homicide was not liable to the death-penalty because there had been no previous enmity on his part. D19: 1-6
  

54    When one man is the enemy of another, and he lies in wait for him, attacks him and strikes him a blow so that he dies, and then takes sanctuary in one of these cities, the elders of his own city shall send to fetch him; they shall hand him over to the next-of-kin, and he shall die. D19: 11-13

  

55    If a burglar is caught in the act and is fatally injured, it is not murder; but if he breaks in after sunrise and is fatally injured, then it is murder. E22: 4

   

56    When you build a new house, put a parapet along the roof, or you will bring the guilt of bloodshed on your house if anyone should fall from it. D22: 8

 

  

Compensation for Injuries

   

57    When men quarrel and one hits another with a stone or with a spade, and the man is not killed but takes to his bed; if he recovers so as to walk about outside with a stick, then the one who struck him has no liability, except that he shall pay for loss of time and shall see that he is cured. E21: 18

  

58    When a man strikes and disfigures his neighbor, what he has done shall be done to him: fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. The injury he has inflicted on another shall in turn be inflicted on him. L24:19-20

 

59    Wherever hurt is done, you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, bruise for bruise, wound for wound. E21: 23-25

  

60    When a man strikes his slave or his slave-girl with a stick and the slave dies on the spot, he must be punished. But he shall not be punished if the slave survives for one day or two, because he is worth money to his master. E21: 20-21

  

61    When a man strikes his slave or slave-girl in the eye and destroys it, he shall let the slave go free in compensation for the eye. When he knocks out the tooth of a slave or a slave-girl, he shall let the slave go free in compensation for the tooth. E21: 26-27

  

62    When, in the course of a brawl, a man knocks against a pregnant woman so that she has a miscarriage but suffers no further hurt, then the offender must pay whatever fine the woman's husband demands after assessment. E21: 22

  

63    When an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox shall be stoned, and its flesh may not be eaten; the owner of the ox shall be free from liability. If, however, the ox has for some time past been a vicious animal, and the owner has been duly warned but has not kept it under control, and the ox kills a man or a woman, then the ox shall be stoned, and the owner shall be put to death as well. If, however, the penalty is commuted for a money payment, he shall pay in redemption of his life whatever is imposed upon him. If the ox gores a son or a daughter, the same rule shall apply. If the ox gores a slave or slave-girl, its owner shall pay thirty shekels of silver to their master, and the ox shall be stoned. E21: 28-32

  

  

Protection of Property

  

64    You shall not steal. E20: 15

  

65    You shall not oppress your neighbor, n or rob him. L19:13

  

66    Do not move your neighbor's boundary stone, fixed by the men of former times D19: 14

   

67    You shall not pervert justice in measurement of length, weight, or quantity. You shall have true scales, true weights, true measures dry and liquid. L19:35-36.

  

68    You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, his slave, his slave-girl, his ox, his ass, or anything that belongs to him. E20:17

 

69    When you see your fellow-countryman's ass or ox lying on the road, do not ignore it; you must help him to lift it to its feet again. D22: 4

  

70    When you come upon your enemy's ox or ass straying, you shall take it back to him. When you see the ass of someone who hates you lying helpless under its load, however unwilling you may be to help it, you must give him a hand with it. E23: 4-5

   

71    When you see a fellow-countrymanís ox or sheep straying, do not ignore it but take it back to him. If the owner is not a near neighbor and you do not know who he is, take the animal into your own house and keep it with you until he claims it, and then give it back to him. Do the same with his ass or his cloak or anything else that your fellow-countryman has lost, if you find it. You may not ignore it. D22: 1-3

   

72    Whoever strikes a beast and kills it shall make restitution, life for life. L24:18

   

73    When a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters or sells it, he shall repay five beasts for the ox and four sheep for the sheep. He shall pay in full; if he has no means, he shall be sold to pay for the theft. But if the animal is found alive in his possession, be it ox, ass, or sheep, he shall repay two. E22: 1-3

  

74    When a man removes the cover of a well or digs a well and leaves it uncovered, then if an ox or an ass falls into it, the owner of the well shall make good the loss. He shall repay the owner of the beast in silver, and the dead beast shall be his. E21: 33-34

  

75    When one man's ox butts another's and kills it, they shall sell the live ox, share the price and also share the dead beast. But if it is known that the ox has for some time past been vicious and the owner has not kept it under control, he shall make good the loss, ox for ox, but the dead beast is his. E21: 35-36

 

76    When a man burns off a field or a vineyard and lets the fire spread so that it burns another man's field, he shall make restitution from his own field according to the yield expected; and if the whole field is laid waste, he shall make restitution from the best part of his own field or vineyard. E22: 5

   

77    When a fire starts and spreads to a heap of brushwood, so that sheaves, or standing corn, or a whole field is destroyed, he who started the fire shall make full restitution. E22: 6

    

78    When one man gives another silver or chattels for safe keeping, and they are stolen from that man's house, the thief, if he is found, shall restore twofold. But if the thief is not found, the owner of the house shall . . . make a declaration that he has not touched his neighbour's property. In every case of law-breaking involving an ox, an ass, or a sheep, a cloak, or any lost property which may be claimed, each party shall bring his case before God; he whom God declares to be in the wrong shall restore twofold to his neighbour. E22: 7-9

   

79    When a man gives an ass, an ox, a sheep or any beast into his neighbour's keeping, and it dies or is injured or is carried off, there being no witness, the neighbour shall swear by YHWH that he has not touched the man's property. The owner shall accept this, and no restitution shall be made. If it has been stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner. If it has been mauled by a wild beast, he shall bring it in as evidence; he shall not make restitution for what has been mauled. E22: 10-13

 

80    When a man borrows a beast from his neighbour and it is injured or dies while its owner is not with it, the borrower shall make full restitution; but if the owner is with it, the borrower shall not make restitution. If it was hired, only the hire shall be due. E22: 14-15

   

   

Protection of Women

 

81    If the man comes upon such a girl in the country and rapes her, then the man alone shall die because he lay with her. You shall do nothing to the girl, she has done nothing worthy of death: this deed is like that of a man who attacks another and murders him, for the man came upon her in the country and, though the girl cried for help, there was no one to rescue her D22: 25-27

  

82    When a man comes upon a virgin who is not pledged in marriage and forces her to lie with him, and they are discovered, then the man who lies with her shall give the girl's father fifty pieces of silver, and she shall be his wife because he has dishonoured her. He is not free to divorce her all his life long. D22: 28-29

  

83    When a man seduces a virgin who is not yet betrothed, he shall pay the bride-price for her to be his wife. If her father refuses to give her to him, the seducer shall pay in silver a sum equal to the bride-price for virgins. E22: 16-17

  

  

Loans and Pledges

   

84    You shall not charge interest on anything you lend to a fellow-countryman, money or food or anything else on which interest can be charged. You may charge interest on a loan to a foreigner but not on a loan to a fellow-countryman, D23: 19-20

   

85    And if your brother Israelite is reduced to poverty, and cannot support himself in the community, you shall assist him as you would a an alien or stranger, and he shall live with you. You shall not charge him interest on a loan, either by deducting it in advance from the capital sum, or by adding it on to the repayment. L25: 35-36

   

86    When you make a loan to another man, do not enter his house to take a pledge from him. Wait outside, and the man whose creditor you are shall bring the pledge out to you. If he is a poor man, you shall not sleep in the cloak he has pledged. Give it back to him at sunset so that he may sleep in it and bless you; D24: 10-13

   

87    No man shall take millstones, or even the upper one alone, in pledge; that would be taking a life in pledge. D24: 6

   

88    You shall not deprive aliens and orphans of justice nor take a widow's cloak in pledge. D24:17

  

  

Sexual Relations

 

89    No man shall approach a blood-relation for intercourse. L18:6

  

90    When a man has intercourse with a slave-girl who has been assigned to another man and neither ransomed nor given her freedom, inquiry shall be made. They shall not be put to death, because she has not been freed. The man shall bring his guilt-offering, a ram. . . . and he shall be forgiven the sin he has committed. L19:20-22

  

91    If a man has intercourse with a man as with a woman, they both commit an abomination. They shall be put to death. L20:13

 

92    If a man takes both a woman and her mother, that is lewdness. Both he and they shall be burnt. L20:14

 

93    A man who has sexual intercourse with any beast shall be put to death, and you shall kill the beast. L20:15

 

94    If a woman approaches any animal to have intercourse with it, you shall kill both woman and beast. L20:16

   

95    No Israelite woman shall become a temple-prostitute, and no Israelite man shall prostitute himself in this way. D23-17

   

 

Slavery and Kidnapping

   

96    Such male and female slaves as you may have shall come from among the nations that are round about you; from them you may buy slaves. L25:44

   

97    You may also buy the children of those who have settled and lodge with you and such of their family as are born in the land. These may become your property, and you may leave them to your sons after you. L25:45

  

98    When a man is found to have kidnapped a fellow-countryman, an Israelite, and to have treated him harshly and sold him, he shall die: D24: 7

   

99    When a fellow-Hebrew, man or woman, sells himself to you as a slave, he shall serve you for six years and in the seventh year you shall set him free. But when you set him free, do not let him go empty-handed. Give to him lavishly from your flock, from your threshing-floor and your winepress. Be generous to him, D15: 12-14

  

100    If, however, a slave is content to be with you and says, "I will not leave you, I love you and your family", then you shall take an awl and pierce through his ear to the door, and he will be your slave for life. You shall treat a slave-girl in the same way. D15: 16-17

  

101    When a man sells his daughter into slavery, she shall not go free as a male slave may. If her master has had intercourse with her and she does not please him, he shall let her be ransomed. He has treated her unfairly and therefore has no right to sell her to strangers. If he assigns her to his son, he shall allow her the rights of a daughter. If he takes another woman, he shall not deprive the first of meat, clothes, and conjugal rights. If he does not provide her with these three things, she shall go free without any payment. E21: 7-11

   

102    You shall not surrender to his master a slave who has taken refuge with you. Let him stay with you anywhere he chooses in any one of your settlements, wherever suits him best; you shall not force him. D23: 15-16

  

  

War

  

103    When you advance on a city to attack it, make an offer of peace. If city accepts the offer and opens its gates to you, then all the people in it shall be put to forced labour and shall serve you. If it does not make peace with you but offers battle, you shall besiege it . . . You shall put all its males to the sword, but you may take the women, the dependants, and the cattle for yourselves, and plunder everything else in the city. D20: 10-14

   

104    When you are at war, and lay siege to a city for a long time in order to take it, do not destroy its trees by taking the axe to them, for they provide you with food; you shall not cut them down. The trees of the field are not men that you should besiege them. But you may destroy or cut down any trees that you know do not yield food, and use them in siege-works against the city that is at war with you, until it falls. D20: 19-20

   

105    When you wage war against your enemy and . . . you take some of them captive, then if you see a comely woman among the captives and take a liking to her, you may marry her. You shall bring her into your house, where she shall shave her head, pare her nails, and discard the clothes which she had when captured. Then she shall stay in your house and mourn for her father and mother for a full month. After that you may have intercourse with her; you shall be her husband and she your wife. But if you no longer find her pleasing, let her go free. You must not sell her, nor treat her harshly, since you have had your will with her. D21 10-14

   

  

Sources

   

The New English Bible, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press, England, 1970.

 

The Old Testament World, Second Edition, by Philip R. Davies & John Rogerson. Westminster John Knox Press, Louisvill, Kentucky, 2006.