Comparison

Home Human Obligations

 

A Declaration of Human Obligations

Compared with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

This page shows the rewrite of the transformation from rights to obligations. In the rewrite, editing changes have been made that include condensation or elaboration, avoidance of abstractions, use of more familiar words, making reference to both sexes rather than ‘man’, and inserting the word ‘obligations’ where ‘rights’ are mentioned, deleting reference to rights that are covered in the Declaration of Rights. The sequence of obligations was altered to allow individual and more general obligations to come first (for example, freedom of movement is necessary to exercise a vote, and so it has precedence in the sequence). Sometimes individual articles were split up or combined. The numbered paragraphs in the Declaration of Obligations are shown in italic type.

 

Article 1.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

1 All human beings are born with reason and conscience. . .

3 Act towards other people as brothers and sisters, born free and equal, in dignity and obligations.

   

Article 2.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

2 These obligations are without exemption due to race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

3 These obligations are without exemption on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it is independent, a trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

  

Article 3.

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

5 Respect and protect the life, liberty and security of all people. . .

  

Article 4.

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

17 Free people held in slavery or servitude. Prohibit all forms of slavery and the slave trade.

   

Article 5.

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

18 Prevent people from being tortured or subjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

   

Article 6.

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

23 Recognize anyone, from anywhere, as a person before the law.

  Article 7.

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

24  Treat everyone equally before the law and protect them equally under the law. 

45  Protect everyone against incitement to discrimination and against discrimination that violates this Declaration.

Article 8.

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

46 Ensure that competent national tribunals remedy acts violating obligations, rights and freedoms granted anyone by a constitution or by law.

 

Article 9.

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

6  Prevent anyone from being arbitrarily arrested, detained or exiled.

 

Article 10.

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

25  In determining a person's rights and obligations or need to respond to a criminal charge, give them, in full equality, a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal.

 

Article 11.

(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

26 Assume that anyone charged with a crime is innocent until proved guilty. Make sure such proof is according to law in a public trial at which the accused has had all the guarantees necessary for a defense.

(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

27 Find no one guilty of any crime because of an act or omission that did not constitute a crime, under national or international law, at the time it was committed. Do not impose a heavier penalty than the one applicable at the time the crime was committed.

  

Article 12.

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

15  Do not arbitrarily interfere with another person’s privacy, family, home, or correspondence. Your laws must protect people against such interference.

 

16  Do not attack a person's honor and reputation. See that the law protects people against such attacks.

 

Article 13.

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.

8  Allow all people freedom of movement and place of residence within your country.

(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

42  Allow people to leave your country and return to it, or to their own.

   

Article 14.

(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

43 Give a fair hearing to those seeking asylum from persecution. . .

(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

43 . . . But do not let them enjoy asylum when they have committed non-political crimes or of acts contrary to United Nations’ purposes and principles.

  

Article 15.

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.

42 Ensure that everyone in your country has their nationality recognized, . . .

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

42 . . . is not arbitrarily deprived of it,  and can change it if they want to.

   

Article 16.

(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.

20 . . . let a man and a woman of full age marry and found a family, with no limitation regarding race, nationality, or religion.

21 Recognize that men and women have equal rights going into marriage, during marriage, and at the end of marriage.

(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

20  With the free and full consent of each . . .

(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

19 With your neighbors and government, protect each family. It is the foundation of society.

  

Article 17.

(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.

14   See that everyone has the right to own property, alone or with others. . .

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

14  . . . Let it not be taken from them unlawfully.

    

Article 18.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

10   Allow all people freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Enable them to freely choose their religion or belief, or freely change it.

 

11  Let all people express their choice of religion or belief in public and in private, alone or with others, in teaching, practice, worship or observance. 

Article 19.

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

7   Allow all people freedom of opinion and expression, without interference. Let them seek, receive and express thoughts and opinions in any way they wish, without regard for frontiers.   

   

Article 20.

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

9 Allow people to assemble peacefully and  form associations, . . .

(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

9 . . . without compulsion.

   

Article 21.

(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

13 Take part in the government of your country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.

30 Give everyone equal access to public service in your country.

(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

12 Base the authority of government on the will of the people, through periodic free elections by secret vote, with equal and universal suffrage.

 

Article 22.

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

34 Provide people with security in old age, or when struck by unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, or other threats to livelihood beyond their control.

 

28 Carry out, through national effort and international co-operation, the economic, social and cultural obligations indispensable for the dignity and the free development of each person's personality, in accordance with the organization and resources of your State.

 

 

 

Article 23.

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.

29 Make sure everyone can work, can choose their employment, and has just and favorable working conditions.

34 Provide people with security in old age, or when struck by unemployment . . .

(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.

32 Provide everyone with equal pay for equal work, without discrimination.

(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.

31 Provide a just and favorable remuneration to people who work, so that they and their families can live out their lives with dignity.

34 Provide people with security in old age, or when struck by unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, or other threats to livelihood beyond their control.

(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

33 Let anyone form or join a trade union for protection of their own interests.

 

Article 24.

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

39 To allow everyone rest and leisure, put a reasonable limit on working hours, and give periodic holidays with pay.

   

Article 25.

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

35 See individuals and families have a standard of living adequate for health and well-being, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and social services.

34 Provide people with security in old age, or when struck by unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, or other threats to livelihood beyond their control.

(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

22 Give special care and assistance to mothers and children. Give all children, born in or out of wedlock, the same social protection.

   

Article 26.

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

36 Provide everyone with a free education, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Make elementary education compulsory. Make technical and professional education generally available. Give equal access to higher education to all on the basis of merit.

(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

37 Make sure education provides full development of the human personality. It must strengthen respect for human obligations, rights, and freedoms. It must promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all beliefs, religions, races, and nations. It must further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

38 Allow parents to choose the kind of education given to their children.

   

Article 27.

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

40 Make sure everyone can take part in the cultural life of the community, enjoy the arts, and share in scientific advances and their benefits.

(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

41 Protect the moral and material interests in a scientific, literary or artistic work for its creator.

   

Article 28.

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

48 Strive for a social and international order that realizes the obligations, rights and freedoms set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

     

Article 29.

(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.

1  All human beings are born with reason and a conscience. As members of their community, in which alone the free and full development of a person’s personality is possible, every individual, and every organ of society, has the following obligations.

(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

47 Make sure that exercise of these obligations, rights and freedoms is limited by law solely to secure due recognition and respect for the rights, freedoms and obligations of others and to meet the just requirements of morality, public order and general welfare in a democratic society.

(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

49 Ensure that the obligations are not exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

  

Article 30.

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

50  Do not interpret anything in this declaration as giving you, your group, or your State the right to act in any way to seek destruction of any of the obligations, rights and freedoms set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

Declaration of Obligations